Background: Patients with severe renal impairment or undergoing hemodialysis are usually excluded from clinical trials. Available data regarding safety and activity of systemic therapies (ST) in hemodialyzed patients are scarce.
Methods: Clinical data were searched through PubMed database until April 2020 according to PRISMA criteria. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) assessment of ST were reported.
Results: Among 270 references, 56 reports were evaluated in full text: 41 were included for efficacy and 42 for safety analysis (sunitinib n = 68, bevacizumab n = 6, everolimus n = 28, temsirolimus n = 17, sorafenib n = 55, axitinib n = 13, pazopanib n = 13, nivolumab n = 18, cabozantinib n = 0, lenvatinib n = 0, and ipilimumab n = 0). Twelve of the reports included PK assessment among dialyzed patients. Hemodialysis did not seem to modify the expected efficacy and safety of each compound among patients undergoing hemodialysis. PK assessments were not modified in comparison with a population not undergoing dialysis.
Conclusion: Targeted and Immune therapies seem to be effective and can be used among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Due to frailty and comorbidities associated to chronic hemodialysis enhanced vigilance for these therapies within this specific population is recommended. Dedicated prospective clinical trials would definitely help to obtain data with a higher level of evidence.
Keywords: Dialysis; Immunotherapy; Pharmacokinetic; Systemic therapies.