Background: Synchronous prostate cancer (PC) and rectal cancer (RC) is a rare clinical situation. While combining curative-intent management for both cancers can be challenging, available data for guiding the multidisciplinary strategy are lacking.
Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing rectal resection for a mid-low RC with synchronous PC treated at 9 tertiary-care centers between 2008 and 2018 were included. Management strategy and data on postoperative and long-term outcomes were retrospectively analyzed.
Results: Overall, 25 patients underwent curative-intent RC resection combined with PC management. Nine (36%), 10 (40%) and 6 (24%) patients had low-, intermediate-, and high-risk PC, respectively. Management mostly consisted of chemoradiotherapy combined in 18 patients (72%) with either TME in 12 patients or pelvic exenteration for resection of both cancers in 6 patients. Most patients underwent RC resection using a laparoscopic approach (n = 16, 64%). Anastomosis was performed in 18 patients (72%) of whom 13 received diverting ileostomy. The complete R0 resection rate was 96% (n = 24). The overall morbidity rate was 64% (n = 16) and 5 patients (20%) experienced severe surgical morbidity of which two died within 90 days of surgery after pelvic exenteration. Among patients with anastomosis, 2 patients (11%) experienced anastomotic leak requiring surgical management. After a median follow-up of 31.2 months, 3-year OS and RFS were 80.2% (CI 95% 58.8-92.2) and 68.6% (CI 95% 42.3-84.8), respectively.
Conclusions: This series is the largest to report that simultaneous curative-intent management of synchronous PC and RC is feasible and safe. Pelvic exenteration might be a better option when RC complete resection seems not achievable through TME.