Defective mismatch repair system (dMMR) has been shown to have a favorable impact on outcome in patients with colorectal cancer treated with surgery or immunotherapy, with adjuvant chemotherapy being discouraged unless there is nodal involvement. Its impact on radiosensitivity is unknown in patients with colorectal cancer.
METHODS AND MATERIALS:
Patients treated for locally advanced rectal cancer between 2000 and 2016 were studied. Reported points included age, sex, clinical and radiologic tumor stages at diagnosis, modalities of neoadjuvant treatment, posttreatment pathologic staging, tumor regression score, and local, distant relapse-free, and overall survival. An inverse probability of treatment weighting propensity score analysis was performed to evaluate the association of mismatch repair proficiency with surgical and clinical outcomes.
Among the 296 patients included, 23 (7.8%) had dMMR. Median follow-up was 43.0 months (interquartile range, 27.9-66.7). Patients with dMMR were significantly younger than the others. After inverse probability of treatment weighting propensity score matching, dMMR patients had higher pathologic downstaging rate (P < .0001), higher tumor regression grade (P = .024), and a longer recurrence-free survival (P < .0001).
dMRR was associated with significant tumor downstaging after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and with increased recurrence-free survival. dMMR patients may have more radiosensitive tumors.
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